Inconsistent risk quotes for diet heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure and cancers
Inconsistent risk quotes for diet heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure and cancers may be due to differences in exposure assessment methods and the connected measurement error. that either based on the diary or urinary PhIP separately, but was modestly correlated with a metric that combined the diary- and biomarker-based methods (r=0.30, P=0.08). The high within-subject variability will result in significantly attenuated associations if a single measure is used to estimate exposure within an epidemiologic study. Improved HCA assessment tools, such as a combination of methods or validated biomarkers that capture long term exposure, are needed. Keywords: heterocyclic amines, biomonitoring, meat, food rate of recurrence questionnaire, PhIP Intro Epidemiologic evidence linking diet intake of heterocyclic amines buy 89-78-1 (HCAs) with cancers of the colon (Augustsson et al., 1999; Butler et al., 2003; Gunter et al., 2005; Nowell et al., 2002; Shin et al., 2007; Sinha et al., 2001; Wu et al., 2010), breast (Delfino et al., 2000; Sinha et al., 2000), pancreas (Anderson et al., 2005; Li et al., 2007), and prostate (Mix et al., 2005) is definitely inconsistent, possibly due to differences in exposure buy 89-78-1 assessment methods and the connected measurement error (Alaejos et al., 2008; Butler et Mouse monoclonal to Influenza A virus Nucleoprotein al., 2003; Cantwell et al., 2004; Mix et al., 2011; Norat and Riboli, 2001; Turesky and Le, 2011). The standard method for assessing diet HCA intake in epidemiologic studies of malignancy combines meat intake info from food rate of recurrence questionnaires (FFQs) having a database of imply concentrations of HCAs measured in cooked meats (Kazerouni et al., 2001; Keating et al., 2007; Sinha et al., 2005). Advantages of this method include low participant burden and the ability to provide an estimate of typical intake of HCAs, typically over the previous yr. Possible limitations include imperfect recall of typical intake, recall bias (in retrospective studies), and differing accuracy of reporting of meat intake info by gender, buy 89-78-1 sociable desirability (the inclination to respond to questions in a manner to avoid shame or present oneself favorably), or body mass index (Scagliusi et al., 2009). Furthermore, the FFQ may badly represent individual-level publicity because HCA concentrations in meat vary numerous aspects of cooking food that may possibly not be contained in the FFQ or HCA data source, such as for example pre-cooking in the microwave, regularity of flipping meats, concentrations of precursors, or usage of marinades (Sinha and Rothman, 1997; Skog, 2002; Salmon, 2000). Regardless of the need for publicity classification in epidemiologic evaluation of reliance and PhIP from the FFQ for this function, small is well known of its comparability and dependability with various other strategies. Diet diaries give another technique for classifying publicity. An edge of diet plan diaries is normally that they dont on recall rely, but precision of recording varies with the same specific features as FFQs (Scagliusi et al., 2009). Furthermore, the amount of collection times required to get accurate quotes of normal intake boosts with raising intra-individual variability in intake of the mark food items. Raising the amount of times of journal collection decreases conformity (Willett, 1998). Like FFQs, diaries should be matched with measured beliefs of mean concentrations of HCAs to acquire individual-level quotes of intake. Much like FFQs, there’s been small previous work evaluating the comparability of diary-based approximated HCA intake with various other strategies. Biomarkers reflect your body burden from publicity without the dimension error presented from self-reported eating intake (Cantwell et al., 2004). HCA biomarkers possess high specificity for the eating path most likely, because diet may be the major way to obtain HCA publicity (Sugimura et al., 2004). Urinary focus of buy 89-78-1 one of the very most mass-abundant HCAs, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine (PhIP) and its own metabolites, is delicate to boosts in eating PhIP as showed in controlled nourishing research (Friesen et al.,.