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It is well-known that nanoparticles could cause toxic effects in cells.

It is well-known that nanoparticles could cause toxic effects in cells. Cobalt and Nickel nanoparticles caused the highest cytotoxicity. In contrast, Titanium, NickelCIron, and NickelCTitanium nanoparticles had almost no influence on cells below a nanoparticle concentration of 10?M. Nanoparticles in cysteine dissolved almost completely, whereas less ions are released when nanoparticles were stabilized in water or citrate solution. Nanoparticles stabilized by cysteine caused less inhibitory effects on cells purchase Tipifarnib suggesting cysteine to form metal complexes with bioactive ions in media. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Nanoparticles, NickelCTitanium, Cobalt, Endothelial cells, Smooth muscle cells, Ligands, Environmental and health effects Introduction NickelCTitanium (NiTi) and CobaltCChromium (CoCr) alloys are important materials for biomedical applications and are widely used for cardiovascular implants (Vogel et al. 2003; Shen purchase Tipifarnib et al. 2009; Huang et al. 2009). Owing to failure during production (e.g., residual particles from laser cutting), or wear, or abrasion of metallic implants nanoparticles might be unintentionally released into the body and are known TSC1 to cause adverse effects (Webster 2007; Case et al. 1994; Papageorgiou et al. 2007; Borm et al. 2006). The properties of these unintentional released particles are not qualified up to now and particle-size distribution is expected to be relatively broad (Case et al. 1994). Furthermore, the lifetime and dissolution behaviour of the nanoparticles might be different depending on the type and local environment of the implant. As of now, a variety of studies dealing with the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles exist (Oberd?rster et al. 2004; Dahl et al. 2009; Studer et al. 2010; Borm and Kreyling 2004; Bhabra et al. 2009; Gojova et al. 2007; Horie et al. 2011), but statements on nanoparticle toxicity should be viewed carefully due to the complexity of the mechanisms determining the interactions at the bio-nano interface (Nel et al. 2009). The concentration and size of nanoparticles, their up-take mechanism, their bonding characteristics on cell surfaces, or even the characteristics of the exposed tissue influence cytotoxicity. Hence, it is substantial that nanoparticle toxicity needs to be determined by choosing an appropriate nanoparticle material and a relevant cell type with regard to the present in vivo conditions (Neuss et al. 2008). Thus, the bio-response of human endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived from coronary arteries has yet to be determined in particular for alloy nanoparticles when considering stents as one example of cardiovascular implants. In particular, nanoparticles released from stents made of alloys-like NiTi might cause adverse effects since Nickel (Ni) compounds are known to be toxic (Costa et al. 1981; Schwerdtle and Hartwig 2006). Cell response to Ni-nanoparticles and -alloy nanoparticles should be examined as well, with the intention to determine the toxic potential of Ni as alloying element in nanoparticles. Laser ablation of solid targets in liquids is a method to generate nanoparticles of a variety of materials in different liquids purchase Tipifarnib without impurities or precursors (Kazakevich et al. 2004; Kabashin and Meunier 2003; Mafun et al. 2003). No alternative method is able to provide alloy nanoparticles made of the same material than the implant, in particular alloy nanoparticles-like NiTi. Moreover, nanoparticles generated via this method have a relatively broad-size distribution (Menendez-Manjon and Barcikowski 2011) similar to the undefined size distribution expected from particles released during implant abrasion or wear. Another advantage oft this method is the flexible choice of the carrier fluid which might vary from pure distilled water to organic solvent doped with silicone (Petersen and Barcikowski 2009a, b; Hahn and Barcikowski 2009). Hence, the generation of stabilised nanoparticles as well as ligand-free nanoparticles is possible (Petersen et al. 2009). In situ stabilisation of nanoparticles while adding ligands to the carrier fluid enables the design of the nanoparticles surface (Besner et al. 2006; Petersen and Barcikowski 2009b). This technique is suitable to provide a variety of nanoparticulate materials for toxicity assessment in particular alloy nanoparticles like NiTi (Barcikowski et al. 2010)..