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Background Angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms most critical to the

Background Angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms most critical to the postoperative recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). normal liver tissue or paracarcinomatous liver tissue but was expressed in the vascular endothelial buy 331963-29-2 cells of all HCC tissue. In contrast, CD34 was expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of normal liver tissue, paracarcinomatous tissue, and HCC tissue in the following proportions of specimens: 86.7%, 93.8%, and 100%, respectively. The microvascular densities (MVDs) of HCC determined by using an anti-CD105 mAb (CD105-MVD) and an anti-CD34 mAb (CD34-MVD), were 71.7 8.3 (SD) and 106.3 10.4 (SD), respectively. There was a significant correlation between CD105-MVD and CD34-MVD (r = 0.248, P = 0.021). Although CD34-MVD was significantly correlated with VEGF expression (r = 0.243, P buy 331963-29-2 = 0.024), CD105-MVD was more closely correlated (r = 0.300, P= 0.005). The correlation between microscopic venous invasion and CD105-MVD, but not CD34-MVD, was also statistically significant (r = 0.254, P = 0.018). Univariate analysis showed that CD105-MVD was significantly correlated with the 2-year overall survival rate (P = 0.014); CD34-MVD was not (P = 0.601). Multivariate analysis confirmed that CD105-MVD was an independent prognostic factor and that CD34-MVD was buy 331963-29-2 not. Conclusion The anti-CD105 mAb is an ideal instrument to quantify new microvessels in HCC as compared with anti-CD34 mAb. CD105-MVD as compared with CD34-MVD is relevant a significant and independent prognostic indicator for recurrence and metastasis in HCC patients. Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of buy 331963-29-2 the most common cancers worldwide, especially in China, where it has been ranked as the second leading cancer killer since the 1990s [1]. Although some advances have occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of Mouse monoclonal to GABPA HCC, the long-term outcome for affected patients is still very poor: the 5-year recurrence rate of HCC is as high as 50% to 60% [2]. Therefore, identifying the molecular markers that correlate with the recurrence or metastasis of HCC may help improve the outcome in these patients. Angiogenesis is one of the mechanisms most critical to the postoperative recurrence and metastasis of HCC [3-5]. Thus, finding the molecular markers associated with angiogenesis may help identify patients at increased risk for recurrence and metastasis of HCC, and thus those who require more aggressive therapy and closer surveillance. To date, however, no such marker has been definitively identified. One potential marker is the degree of neovascularization (ie, the microvascular density [MVD]). Several researchers have demonstrated that the MVD, as evaluated by an anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (CD34-MVD), was closely correlated with the prognosis of HCC [6,7]. However, other investigators have not found any such correlation [8,9]. These conflicting results are most likely due to the different reactivities of the anti-endothelial cell antibodies used to stain the intratumoral microvessels [10]. For example, antibodies against pan-endothelial cells, such as the anti-CD34 mAb, react with not only newly formed vessels but also normal vessels trapped within tumor tissues [11,12]. In contrast, the anti-CD105 mAb preferentially reacts with the activated endothelial cells of angiogenic tissues, including tumors, but weakly or not at all with the endothelial cells of most normal tissues [10,12-23]. Thus, the detection of CD105 is likely to be useful not only for its prognostic value as a means to identify candidates for specific antiangiogenic therapy. In fact, some investigators have already demonstrated that the MVD of cells, determined with an anti-CD105 mAb (CD105-MVD) but not with an anti-CD34 mAb, correlates with prognosis in some other types of carcinoma, such as breast, renal cell, and colorectal carcinoma [24-29]. Thus, our study attempts to investigate a correlation between CD105-MVD and the postoperative recurrence or metastasis of HCC. Methods Patients and specimens The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Central South University. Tumor tissue specimens from 113 patients with HCC who underwent complete tumor resection without any preoperative therapy in Xiang Ya Hospital in China from 1994 to 1997 were retrospectively reviewed. All tumors were pathologically confirmed to be HCC containing paracarcinomatous tissues. Paracarcinomatous tissue is taken from non-cancerous tissue 1 cm away from the tumor margin. Normal liver tissue excised near the HCC in 14 patients was also reviewed. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 73 years, with a mean age of 44.4 years ( 11.0 years [SD]). Of the 113 patients, 78 were men and 35 were women. Follow-up information about the postoperative clinical course of patients was available from outpatient medical records, telephone calls, or letters. Follow-up was.