The widespread use of the mouse like a magic size system
The widespread use of the mouse like a magic size system to study mind development has created the need for noninvasive neuroimaging methods that can be applied to early postnatal mice. and nuclei. We acquired high-quality longitudinal mind images from two groups of FVB/N strain mice six mice per group each mouse imaged on alternate odd and even days (6 3D MEMRI ROBO1 images at each day) covering the developmental phases between postnatal days 1 to 11. The effects of Mn-exposure anesthesia and MRI were assessed showing small but significant transient effects on body weight and mind volume which recovered with time and did not result in significant morphological variations when compared to controls. Metrics derived from deformation-based morphometry (DBM) were utilized for quantitative analysis of changes in volume position and signal intensity of a number of mind areas. The cerebellum a mind region undergoing significant changes in size and patterning at early postnatal phases was analyzed in detail to demonstrate the spatiotemporal characterization made possible by this fresh atlas of mouse mind development. These results display that MEMRI is definitely a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of mouse mind development with great potential for phenotype analysis in mouse models of neurodevelopmental diseases. imaging approach MRI also allows longitudinal studies of morphological changes in individual mice an important requirement in mutants that show variable phenotypes during early postnatal mind development (Szulc et al. 2013 Wadghiri et al. 2004 MRI of the developing mouse mind poses significant difficulties largely due to limitations in signal-to-noise percentage Isoliquiritigenin (SNR)-which in turn limits resolution-and cells contrast. These limitations stem from the fact the anatomical constructions are small and rapidly changing and the cellular features that provide the most obvious endogenous contrast for neuroimaging such as myelination and the segregation of unique white and gray matter compartments are absent or immature in the early postnatal mind. Some success in overcoming these challenges has been accomplished using “active staining” with gadolinium-based contrast agents to increase SNR and contrast (Johnson et al. 2002 Johnson et al. 2002 or by using alternate contrast mechanisms as with diffusion tensor imaging DTI (Mori et al. 2001 With the exception of lower resolution DTI scans these methods generally require fixing the brain and often employ very long acquisition occasions (12h or more) which precludes imaging Isoliquiritigenin and Isoliquiritigenin longitudinal analyses. MEMRI offers emerged as a unique and effective imaging approach for a variety of anatomical and practical studies in the mouse mind (Boretius and Frahm 2011 Chan et al. 2014 Inoue et al. 2011 Koretsky and Silva 2004 Nieman and Turnbull Isoliquiritigenin 2010 Pautler 2004 2006 Silva et al. 2004 Watanabe et al. 2010 Yu et al. 2005 In the developing mouse mind the improved SNR and contrast due to cellular uptake of paramagnetic Mn ions offers made it possible to analyze mind sub-regions and perform morphological phenotype analysis from embryonic to early postnatal phases (Deans et al. 2008 Szulc et al. 2013 Wadghiri et al. 2004 These encouraging results have offered the motivation to further explore the power of MEMRI for longitudinal imaging of the neonatal mouse mind at developmental time points when non-embryonic lethal phenotypes are 1st manifested and when there is the most need to detect and characterize delicate mind defects as they unfold in mouse mutants. The overall objective of this study was to further develop and optimize MEMRI for neonatal neuroimaging and to acquire a comprehensive set of MEMRI images that will serve as a research for normal postnatal mind development and for assessment to neuro-developmental problems in mutant and transgenic mouse models. As such this paper explains the methods for acquiring and analyzing the time-series data in the 4D Isoliquiritigenin atlas and also introduces the types of neuroanatomical info that can be derived from the atlas. The atlas includes quantitative 3D anatomical data at each stage of mind development between postnatal day time (P)1 and P11 consisting of longitudinal datasets from 12 individual mice and registered-averaged data.