Still left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and congestive heart failure are
Still left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) and congestive heart failure are accompanied by changes in myocardial ATP metabolism. (ejection fraction and systolic thickening fraction) declined significantly accompanied by deferent levels of pericardial effusion and wall stress increased in aorta banded animals at after AOB suggesting acute heart failure which recovered by when concentric LVH restored LV wall stresses. Severe LV dysfunction was accompanied by corresponding declines in myocardial bioenergetics (phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio) and in the rate of ATP production via creatine kinase at (NIH publication no. 85-23). Porcine model of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. Experiments were performed with 2-mo-old (～15 kg) female Yorkshire swine (Manthei hog farm Elk River MN). Pressure-overload LVH was surgically induced in 22 animals (i.e. the AOB group) as described previously (16 24 and control assessments were performed in 8 animals that underwent all surgical procedures except the banding step (i.e. the Normal group). Briefly animals were anesthetized with inhaled isoflurane (2% vol/vol) and a left thoracotomy was performed to expose the aorta; then Chondroitin sulfate for animals in the AOB group a plastic band was placed across the aortic arch distal to the second branch and tightened until the peak systolic pressure gradient across the narrowed region reached 40 mmHg. The chest was closed in layers and the animal was allowed to recover. Postoperative analgesia was provided for 24 h after surgery via intramuscular injections of buprenorphine (0.03 Chondroitin sulfate mg/kg) and ketoprofen (12 mg/kg) and for 3 days after surgery with a fentanyl patch. Four animals in the AOB group died of acute LV failure during the 7-day period Chondroitin sulfate immediately following AOB surgery before data collection at the time point could be completed. MRI assessments of cardiac function. Assessments were performed on a 1.5-Tesla clinical scanner (Siemens Sontata Siemens Medical Systems Chondroitin sulfate Islen NJ) with a phased-array four-channel surface coil and ECG gating (20). Cardiac MRI was performed 1 day prior to the terminal open up chest NMR research had been carried out. Pets had been anesthetized with 2% inhaled isoflurane and situated in a supine placement within the scanning device. Cardiac function (ejection small fraction and thickening small fraction) was examined and quantified via short-axis cine pictures and QMASS software program (Medis Medical Imaging Systems Leiden HOLLAND). Aortic narrowing was examined with a cine series with imaging planes placed perpendicular towards the aorta and TRKA the severe nature of aortic narrowing (aortic stenosis) was quantified as the Chondroitin sulfate percentage difference in cross-sectional region between the narrowed region and a region proximal to the narrowed region. LV systolic wall stress was calculated from the anatomic and hemodynamic measurements according to the Laplace model (9): is the rate constant) which incorporates both the ATP→PCr and ATP→Pi reactions and then subtracting the rate of the ATP→PCr reaction which is determined via conventional methods (i.e. value of <0.05 was considered significant. Comparisons between two different groups were analyzed via the < 0.05) in AOB animals than in Normal animals (Fig. 1(< 0.05) and 42% greater at (< 0.05) in AOB animals than in Normal animals and significant although less dramatic increases in the ratio of right ventricular weight to body weight were also observed in AOB animals at MRI was successfully completed showed Chondroitin sulfate evidence of significant pericardial effusion. The Normal group was not subject to terminal MRS study at and = 8; AOB = 7; AOB = 11. At after AOB surgery hemodynamic measurements including LV systolic pressure (LVSP) and the RPP were similar in AOB and Normal animals under both the baseline cardiac workload and after a high cardiac workload was induced via catecholamine infusion (Table 2). However measurements of LV ejection (Fig. 2after surgery LVSP and RPP had increased significantly in animals from the AOB group and were significantly greater than in Normal animals under both workload conditions (Table 2). Cardiac functional parameters (LV ejection fraction and thickening fraction) had also improved and did not differ.