Goals To examine nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) Rabbit
Goals To examine nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) Rabbit Polyclonal to OR2C1. patterns during the transition from adolescence to adulthood and assess individual characteristics and other compound use behaviors associated with longitudinal patterns of NMUPO. to high school seniors and young AZD5438 adults. Participants The longitudinal sample consisted of 27 268 individuals in 30 cohorts (high school senior years 1976-2005) who participated in all four waves. Measurements Self-reports of NMUPO and additional substance use behaviors. Findings Approximately 11.6% (95% CI = 11.2% 12 of the sample reported past-year NMUPO in at least one of the four waves. Among those who reported past-year NMUPO in at least one wave 69 (67.6% 70.4%) 20.5% (19.3% 21.7%) 7.8% AZD5438 (7.1% 8.6%) and 2.7% (2.3% 3.1%) reported NMUPO at one two three and four waves respectively. Several wave 1 variables were associated with greater odds of multiple waves of NMUPO and individuals who reported more waves of NMUPO experienced greater odds of additional substance use behaviors. Conclusions Although most nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) among 18-year-olds in the United States appears to be non-continuing about one-third of AZD5438 the sample reporting NMUPO appear to continue use beyond age 18 and have elevated odds of additional substance use behaviors at age groups 23/24. was assessed at all four waves with an item asking respondents on how many occasions (if any) they used prescription opioids on their own without a doctor’s orders (e.g. Vicodin? OxyContin? Percodan? Percocet? Demerol? Dilaudid? morphine methadone opium codeine) during the past 12 months. The response level was (1) no occasions (2) 1-2 occasions (3) 3-5 occasions (4) 6-9 occasions (5) 10-19 occasions (6) 20-39 occasions and (7) 40 or more occasions. It should be noted the list of good examples was updated in 2002 and several “older” medications (e.g. laudanum Talwin?) were replaced with more “current” medications (e.g. Vicodin? OxyContin? Percodan? Percocet? Dilaudid?). The addition of these new good examples was followed by an uptick in prevalence of NMUPO likely due in part to the changed query [2 3 were assessed at wave 1 and consisted of college student self-reports of the following: gender race/ethnicity (Black White Hispanic Additional) urbanicity (where grew up farm/country vs. not) parental education (some college vs. high school or less) high school grade point average (B- or higher vs. C+ or lower) college plans (any plans vs. no plans) truancy (did not skip any days in the past four weeks vs. one or more skipped days) work intensity (no work vs. 1-15 hours per week vs. 16 or more hours per week) sociable evenings out (less than three per week vs. three or more per week) past two-week binge drinking (any vs. none) past-year cannabis use (any vs. none). Geographic region of the country (Northeast Midwest South West) was based on school location information. Older yr cohort was split into three periods based on the high school class survey yr (1976-1991 1992 and 2002-2005). These three cohort periods were selected due to decreases in the prevalence of NMUPO among high school seniors following 1991 and a change in wording for the NMUPO measure in 2002 resulting in an increase in the prevalence of NMUPO [2 3 Cut-points in the covariates were determined based on level of sensitivity analyses; categorical covariates were desired given our analytic and descriptive methods. were assessed at wave 4 including two-week binge drinking (any vs. none) and past-year cannabis use (any vs. none). We also included past-year additional nonmedical prescription drug use–including amphetamines (e.g. Ritalin? Dexedrine?) and/or tranquilizers (e.g. Ativan? Klonopin? Valium? Xanax?)which were measured with the following questions: “On how many occasions (if any) have AZD5438 you used [specified drug class] during the last 12 months?” The response level for each compound was the same as for NMUPO. A single dichotomous variable was created for analysis from your separate measures to indicate prevalence of use for one or more of these drug classes. Data analysis Given that this was the first national study to systematically examine longitudinal patterns of NMUPO during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.