is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value.
is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. studies of this medicinal plant. Introduction Chloroplasts, one of the main distinguishing characteristics of plant cells, are now generally accepted to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis , . In addition to their central function of photosynthesis, chloroplasts also participate in the biosynthesis of starch, fatty acids, pigments and amino acids . Since the first cp genome sequence of Bunge (Danshen in Chinese) is a deciduous perennial flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae and the order Lamiales. It is a significant traditional Chinese medicinal herb widely cultivated in China with great economic and medicinal value . The dried roots of to date , . These compounds can be divided into two major groups: the hydrophilic phenolic acids, including rosmarinic, lithospermic and salvianolic acids; and the lipophilic components, including diterpenoids and tanshinones , . Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated that compounds in both categories have multiple important and desirable therapeutic actions, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant activities , , . In addition to the significant medicinal value described above, is exemplary Ptgfr for its relatively small genome size (600 Mb), short life cycle and genetic transformability C. These characteristics make an exemplary starting point to investigate the mechanism of medicinal plant secondary metabolism. To date, few data are available regarding the cp genome. Here, as a part of the genome sequencing project of Bunge (line 993) grown in a field Amyloid b-peptide (25-35) (human) manufacture nursery at the medicinal plant garden of the Institute of Medicinal Plant Development. Total DNA was extracted using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, CA, USA) and used for constructing shotgun libraries according to the manufacturers manual for the 454 GS FLX Titanium . A total of 20 GS FLX runs were carried out for the project. In addition, three 250 mate-paired libraries with Amyloid b-peptide (25-35) (human) manufacture insert sizes of 1 1, 3 and 5 kb were constructed following the SOLiD Library Preparation Guide and sequenced on a SOLiD 3 plus platform for 1/2, 3/4 and 1/2 runs, respectively. After quality control, the trimmed and cleaned reads were used to assemble the cp genome. First, the 454 reads were used to generate a raw cp genome assembly. Then, the SOLiD mate-paired reads were mapped to the raw assembly using BioScope (version 1.3, see BioScope Software for Scientists Guide) to correct the Amyloid b-peptide (25-35) (human) manufacture erroneous homopolymers. We thus acquired a high quality complete cp genome. To verify the assembly, four junction regions between IRs and LSC/SSC Amyloid b-peptide (25-35) (human) manufacture were confirmed by PCR amplifications and Sanger sequencing using the primers listed in Table S1. Genome Annotation, Codon Usage and Intra-specific SNPs The cp genome was annotated using the program DOGMA  coupled with manual corrections for start and stop codons. The tRNA genes were identified using DOGMA and tRNAscan-SE . The nomenclature of cp genes was referred to the ChloroplastDB . The circular cp Amyloid b-peptide (25-35) (human) manufacture genome map was drawn using the OGDRAW program . Codon usage and GC content were analyzed using MEGA5 . Intra-specific SNPs were called by mapping the SOLiD mate-paired reads to the cp genome assembly using BioScope. Genome Comparison and Repeat Content MUMmer  was used to perform pairwise cp genomic alignment. mVISTA  was used to compare the cp genome of with three other cp genomes using the annotation of as reference. REPuter  was used to visualize both forward and inverted repeats. The minimal repeat size was set to 30 bp and the identity of repeats was no less than 90% (hamming distance equal to 3). Tandem repeats.