The vertebrate (Sign peptide, CUB, and EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists
The vertebrate (Sign peptide, CUB, and EGF-like domain-containing protein) family consists of three independent members, mutant mouse line functions. 2013). Human was originally identified following transcriptional profiling of vascular endothelial cells and demonstrated significant enrichment in primary osteoblasts and long bones (Wu 2004). SCUBE3 is a signal protein that is expressed during embryonic development in several tissues (Xavier 2013). In mice, is expressed in ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal derivatives, as are other members of the gene family (Haworth 2007). Expression of these genes has been shown to be dynamic, and both reciprocal and complementary to each other (Xavier 2013; Haworth 2007). Although our understanding of the function of in embryonic development as well as during adulthood is still marginal, one major role appears to be in bone development and homeostasis, with another one in neurological functions. Interestingly, human maps to chromosome 6p21.3, a region that has been linked to Paget disease of bone 1 (PDB1) (Fotino 1977; Tilyard 1982), which is characterized by focal areas of increased bone turnover 243984-10-3 supplier Gpc4 (Ralston 2008). function is also associated with other tissues, for example, overexpression in transgenic mice induced cardiac hypertrophy (Yang 2007), and zebrafish Scube3 was recently identified as a key regulator of fast muscle development by modulating fibroblast growth factor signaling (Tu 2014). Further associations of Scube3 have been reported with hedgehog signal transduction (Johnson 2012), angiogenesis (Yang 2013), and the immune system (Luo 2012). In addition, deregulation of has been found in different tumor tissues such as lung cancer (Wu 2011; Zhao 2013) or renal carcinomas (Morris 2011). Although SCUBE3 seems to be involved in many different organ systems and diseases, there is no suitable mouse model so far for the study of functional alterations. Recent publications on mice lacking did not show any obvious phenotype (Xavier 2010; Xavier 2013). In this study, we present the first mutant mouse line with phenotypic alterations: and was derived from the Munich 2000; Sabrautzki 2012). A systemic phenotypic characterization (Hrab de Angelis 2015) of this new mutant mouse line annotates gene function in mice to bone metabolism and morphology, renal function, and hearing, as well as neurological and behavioral functions and energy metabolism. Materials and Methods Generation of Scube3N294K/N294K mutants ENU mutagenesis and breeding were performed as described on a pure C3HeB/FeJ (C3H) background (Hrab de Angelis 2000; Sabrautzki 2012; Aigner 2011). Briefly, C3H mice were originally purchased from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and ENU (Serva Electrophoresis, 243984-10-3 supplier Heidelberg, Germany) was applied in three weekly intervals by intraperitoneal injections of 90 mg/kg body weight to 10C12 wk old male mice (G0). G0 mice were mated with wild-type C3H females to produce F1 offspring. F1 males not showing any obvious phenotypic alterations were mated with wild-type C3H females to obtain the G2 generation. We either choose 6C8 female G2 mice for matings with their F1 father or performed intercross matings of G2 mice to produce at least 20 mice (G3 families). Phenotyping for dysmorphological alterations was performed according to a standardized protocol (Fuchs 2000). A mutation was confirmed by showing a Mendelian distribution of expected homozygous mutant mice. The mouse line was maintained on the C3H genetic background for more than 10 generations. Chromosomal mapping Homozygous carriers of the G3 generation were mated to C57BL/6J (B6) wild-type mice and the progeny (F1 generation) were intercrossed. DNA was prepared from tail tips of affected offspring 243984-10-3 supplier (F2 generation). For chromosomal mapping, a microsatellite panel for polymorphic markers between C3H and B6 was used (Hrab de Angelis 2000). Whole exome sequencing For enrichment of exonic sequences, we used the SureSelectXT Mouse All Exon 50 Mb kit (Agilent) followed by Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing as 100 bp paired-end runs with an average 108 coverage (> 93%.